Focus on Organelle Markers…

In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, and it is usually separately enclosed within its own lipid bilayer (wikipedia). They are often suspended in the cytosol, or attached to the plasma membrane. Organelles were historically identified through the use of some form of microscopy and by cell fractionation.

Knowledge of the subcellular location of a protein may reveal the potential role it plays in a variety of cellular processes. Colocalization with one of the organelle-specific reagents can confirm the subcellular location of a protein of interest. While these organelle markers serve as powerful tools for immunofluorescence, they may also be used as western blot controls for fractionated cell lysates.eukaryotic cell

Nucleus

The Nucleus is a cellular structure present in the majority of eukaryotic cells. It contains the main part of  the genetic material of the cell (DNA). It has two main functions: controlling the chemical reactions of cytoplasm and storing the necessary information for cell division.

Here are some markers useful for this organelle.

Antibodies to the Nucleus

  • PCNA antibody: a rabbit polyclonal antibody to proliferating cell nuclear antigen
  • HDAC1 antibody: a rabbit polyclonal antibody to HDAC1

Antibodies to the NucleolusPAF49

 Antibodies to the Nuclear Envelope

Endoplasmic reticulum

The Endoplasmic reticulum is consisted of a set consisting of a set of folds and membrane tubules that define an inner compartment separated from the rest of the cytosol . Some proteins, during their synthesis, pass through the reticulum to be matured here.

Take a look on some markers usefull to study this part of cell!

Golgi apparatus

The Golgi apparatus synthetizes the most of cell secretions. It’s completed by condesing vacuoles. Some protein in interest can be localized here with some markers.

Mitochondria

Mitochondria are energy plants of eukaryotic cells containing their own genome , transmitted by female track in some cases of sexual reproduction.COX4 antibody

Here are some markers developed to study this organelle.

  • COX4 antibody: a rabbit polyclonal antibody to cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV isoform 1
  • Anti Prohibitin: a rabbit polyclonal antibody to prohibitin

Lysosomes

Lysosomes are  vesicles surrounded by a single phospholipid membrane, with a acid content, filled with degrading enzymes and in charge of  the  digestion of complex molecules.

A lot of proteins interact in this organelle like the lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 detected by LAMP2 antibody.

Endosomes

Endosomes are formed by deformation of the plasma membrane upon absorption of complex molecules, and combining them with lysosomes to digestion by endocytosis. One marker can help you to identify EEA1 (endosome antigen 1): the Anti EEA1 [C3], C-term. 

CytoplasmAnti GAPDH

Cytoplasm describes the contents of the living cell. It’s the whole cell material of protoplasm bounded by the plasmic membrane. Two antibodies can be useful to help you in this organite exploration: the anti-HSP70 1A  and the anti-GAPDH.

Cytoskeleton

The cytoskeleton of a cell is all organized biological polymers that give it most of its mechanical properties.

A lot of antibodies exist to detect actin (GTX100315, GTX109639), or tubulin ( GTX102078).

Interested in learning more?

Take a look at this Poster on Organelle Markers to explore a little further. Or if you’re looking for a specific intracellular pathway, don’t hesitate to leave your questions below!

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