Small GTP-binding proteins such as RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 are involved in regulating cell signalling pathways and impact a wide range of cellular processes, functions, and morphology. They bind and hydrolyze GTP, thus being switched from the activated form to the inactivated form (Fig 1).
The most prominent family of small G proteins is represented by the Ras superfamily of proteins. The Rho subfamily belonging to this superfamily consists of proteins like RhoA, Rac1, and Cdd42. These proteins have been shown to be involved in the regulation of actin dynamics, thus playing a crucial role in processes like cell movement, intracellular transport, and organelle development. While RhoA affects actin stress fibers, Rac1 exhibits effects on lamellipodia and Cdc42 on filopodia. [Read more…]