In a previous post dedicated to Quantitative arrays (Quantibody), I introduced our L-Series aimed at a broad one shot profiling of up to 1000 markers at once. This relative quantitation technology allows you to perform a first screen of your samples of interest versus a control, before you go on to targeted profiling using either pathway specific arrays, or a custom array including the targets of interest identified with the initial L-series screen. [Read more…]
On your journey to Biomarker profiling, you will reach the point where you need to quantify the proteins of interest identified along the way (eg. validation of semi-quantitative array results; biomarker discovery with an initial hunch on which pathway is involved).
At this stage, you will have narrowed down the number of targets you want to look at. However, the use of ELISAs is likely to be still too costly, too time consuming, and may require too much sample volume. [Read more…]
Immune checkpoint molecules play an important role in T cell functionality after TCR/MHC signaling. In fact, blockade of two B7/CD28 family checkpoint molecules, namely CTLA-4 and PD-1, have already demonstrated excellent efficacy in increasing T cell responses to a variety of tumors. [Read more…]
We need to find biomarkers for prognostic, diagnostic and personalised treatment development. Notably to fight cancers that affect tissues. Since biopsies are invasive, it’s better to look for biomarkers in body fluids. Indeed, a simple blood sample becomes a kind of ‘liquid biopsy’ to reveal tissues affections. For 13 years, increasing interest has been shown for miRNA as biomarkers and it will last for sure. The 2 main reasons are that they are major regulators of cell processes and they are released from tissues into the blood. They are major biomarker candidates in serum and plasma. Thus, these circulating miRNA (cmiRNA) are the best hope for modern medicine. Still, a lot of research has to be done to determine the specific signature for each pathology, and also depending on the patient background. Obviously, cmiRNA profiling is a key step and requires sensitive and reproducible method. Sequencing, qRT-PCR, several kind of microarrays… Let’s explore together what the best approach could be. [Read more…]
Finding new biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis or prediction is a hot area in clinical & translational research. Three recent publications are a good example of this. [Read more…]
Early in 2015, researchers of The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute (Australia) have shown a very sensible approach to the discovery of new biomarkers associated to transition from non-metastatic tumours to metastatic tumours in osteosarcoma. Not to be a spoiler, but they found that the uPA/uPAR axis is crucial for this, and can be used as a prognostic biomarker. In fact, inhibition of this axis can inhibit the metastasis in this type of tumours. (Endo-Muñoz et al. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0133592).
I don’t want to focus on the biomarker per se, but rather, on the process that this lab followed to discover this new biomarker. [Read more…]
New techniques such as cDNA microarrays have enabled us to analyse global gene expression. However, almost all cell functions are executed by proteins, which cannot be studied simply through DNA and RNA techniques. In fact, experimental analysis clearly shows disparity can exist between the relative expression levels of mRNA and their corresponding proteins (1).
Therefore, analysis of the proteomic profile is critical, especially in processes that rely on secreted proteins (e.g. inflammation). The conventional approach to analysing multiple protein expression levels has been to use 2-D SDS-PAGE coupled with mass spectrometry. However, these methods are slow, expensive, labor-intensive and require specialised equipment. Moreover, these traditional methods of proteomics are not sensitive enough to detect most secreted biomarkers (typically at pg/ml concentrations).
For some years now, antibody arrays have been available to study markers and publish their discoveries in various areas like Immunology, Atherosclerosis, Inflammation, Angiogenesis, Immunoediting and even signaling pathways (ex. phosphorylation, Receptor Tyrosine Kinases…). So far, however, and in spite of the growing demand by researchers working on stem cells, there were no antibody arrays for this area of research, meaning that individual Western Blots had to be performed. But not any more! [Read more…]
If you are using protein immunoblots, we would like to share with you some recent publications in top-tier journals highlighting the applications of Antibody Arrays for secretome studies. These arrays act as a multiplex western blot, detecting up to 274 proteins in one experiment with high specificity.
So rather than using hundreds of antibodies or ELISAs, or stripping and re-probing blots, you can use Antibody Arrays and compare expression levels of many cytokines, growth factors, receptors, and other proteins in a single assay!. And if you are too busy or prefer experts to take care of your valuable samples, do not hesitate to contact tebu-bio’s laboratory, a certified service provider, for performing your array experiments for Biomarker discovery and Protein Multiplex quantification.
Below you’ll find a selection of publications published in 2015 based on various types of Antibody Arrays:
- Human Cytokine array 6 in Blood – Balakumaran A. et al. “Bone marrow skeletal stem/progenitor cell defects in patients with dyskeratosis congenita and telomere biology disorders. Blood. 2015 Jan 29;125(5):793-802. doi: 10.1182/blood-2014-06-566810.
- Human Cytokine array 5 in Oncogene – Sharif GM. et al. “Cell growth density modulates cancer cell vascular invasion via Hippo pathway activity and CXCR2 signaling.” Oncogene. 2015 Mar 16. doi: 10.1038/onc.2015.44.
- Mouse Cytokine array 1000 in PLoS One – Arshad A et al. (2015) “Simultaneous Irradiation of Fibroblasts and Carcinoma Cells Repress the Secretion of Soluble Factors Able to Stimulate Carcinoma Cell Migration.” PLoS ONE 10(1): e0115447. doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0115447.
- Mouse Inflammation 1 in Laboratory Investigations – Wen J. et al. “Low doses of CMV induce autoimmune-mediated and inflammatory responses in bile duct epithelia of regulatory T cell-depleted neonatal mice. Lab Invest. 2015 Feb;95(2):180-92. doi: 10.1038/labinvest.2014.148.
- Mouse Q4000 in Clinical and Vaccine Immunology – Kurtz S., Elkins K. “Correlates of vaccine-induced protection against TB immune revealed in comparative analyses of lymphocyte populations.” Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, Accepted manuscript posted online 12 August 2015, doi: 10.1128/CVI.00301-15.
- Human G1000 in PLoS One – Gomez DL et al. (2015) “Neurogenin 3 Expressing Cells in the Human Exocrine Pancreas Have the Capacity for Endocrine Cell Fate. PLoS ONE 10(8): e0133862. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0133862.
- Human Apoptosis Array in Drug Design and Development – Ahmadipour F. et al. “Koenimbin, a natural dietary compound of Murraya koenigii (L) Spreng: inhibition of MCF7 breast cancer cells and targeting of derived MCF7 breast cancer stem cells (CD44+/CD24-/low): an in vitro study.” Drug Des Devel Ther. 2015 Feb 24;9:1193-208. doi: 10.2147/DDDT.S72127.
Contact us to know more on how we can help you to publish in high-quality journals!
Immunoediting of cytokine signals provides another area of pathways which tumours utilise to evade and potentially escape from immunological targeting. This post aims at shedding some light into the Tumour Microenvironment (TME) and particularly on how the tumour recruits accomplices to grow and disseminate. [Read more…]