With more than 170,000 publications in 2016, inflammation remains a “hot” topic in today’s Life Science research (source: Google Scholar). Interestingly, ELISA kits are still one of the most popular tools for the accurate quantification of human cytokines involved in this biological process. Here, we review the 5 protein targets most studied by our clients, together with their favourite ELISA kits by RayBiotech in the field of inflammation.
The role of the interactions between tumor cells and their microenvironment (TME) is now well-established in various stages of cancer development. Cytokines, produced by both the cancer and the immune cells, actively contribute to these critical connections (see the previous posts related to the crosstalk between cancer and immune cells in relation to tumor escape, immunoediting and immunosurveillance).
In a recent review published in BBA, RayBiotech‘s team highlights the “cytokine signatures and dynamics” seen during cancer development. They also demonstrate the necessity of designing relevant multiplex immunoassays for the profiling and the quantification of cytokines in biomarker and anti-cancer drug discovery programs.
Valerie Sloane Jones, Ren-Yu Huang, Li-Pai Chen, Zhe-Sheng Chen, Liwu Fu, Ruo-Pan Huang “Cytokines in cancer drug resistance: Cues to new therapeutic strategies” (2016) Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, Volume 1865, Issue 2, 255–265. DOI:10.1016/j.bbcan.2016.03.005.
Download the publication written by RayBiotech, the leader in planar Antibody Arrays.
Finding new biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis or prediction is a hot area in clinical & translational research. Three recent publications are a good example of this. [Read more…]
Stem Cells: a great tool for biomedical research! From the embryo at a very early stage of development, stem cells have two important capabilities: to multiply to infinity by simple division and to give rise to all kind of cells of the organism. These properties offer many opportunities, not only for the regenerative medicine but also for the study of genetic diseases and development of new treatments.
One of the first thing to do when you’re working on this kind of cells is to check if they are really stem cells, i.e their stemness. It can be highlighted by different markers by IF, WB, etc…
Today, I invite you to look at a popular antibody allowing you to monitor the level of differentiation of your cellular model as well as an innovation related to antibody array and stem cell research.
Early in 2015, researchers of The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute (Australia) have shown a very sensible approach to the discovery of new biomarkers associated to transition from non-metastatic tumours to metastatic tumours in osteosarcoma. Not to be a spoiler, but they found that the uPA/uPAR axis is crucial for this, and can be used as a prognostic biomarker. In fact, inhibition of this axis can inhibit the metastasis in this type of tumours. (Endo-Muñoz et al. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0133592).
I don’t want to focus on the biomarker per se, but rather, on the process that this lab followed to discover this new biomarker. [Read more…]
New techniques such as cDNA microarrays have enabled us to analyse global gene expression. However, almost all cell functions are executed by proteins, which cannot be studied simply through DNA and RNA techniques. In fact, experimental analysis clearly shows disparity can exist between the relative expression levels of mRNA and their corresponding proteins (1).
Therefore, analysis of the proteomic profile is critical, especially in processes that rely on secreted proteins (e.g. inflammation). The conventional approach to analysing multiple protein expression levels has been to use 2-D SDS-PAGE coupled with mass spectrometry. However, these methods are slow, expensive, labor-intensive and require specialised equipment. Moreover, these traditional methods of proteomics are not sensitive enough to detect most secreted biomarkers (typically at pg/ml concentrations).
For some years now, antibody arrays have been available to study markers and publish their discoveries in various areas like Immunology, Atherosclerosis, Inflammation, Angiogenesis, Immunoediting and even signaling pathways (ex. phosphorylation, Receptor Tyrosine Kinases…). So far, however, and in spite of the growing demand by researchers working on stem cells, there were no antibody arrays for this area of research, meaning that individual Western Blots had to be performed. But not any more! [Read more…]
Three papers on the role of the TGF-beta pathway in different cancers have recently been published.
It was already known that this pathway is involved in processes such as cell growth, cell differentiation, apoptosis, cellular homeostasis and other cellular functions. The pathway as such works in quite a simple way: [Read more…]
If you are using protein immunoblots, we would like to share with you some recent publications in top-tier journals highlighting the applications of Antibody Arrays for secretome studies. These arrays act as a multiplex western blot, detecting up to 274 proteins in one experiment with high specificity.
So rather than using hundreds of antibodies or ELISAs, or stripping and re-probing blots, you can use Antibody Arrays and compare expression levels of many cytokines, growth factors, receptors, and other proteins in a single assay!. And if you are too busy or prefer experts to take care of your valuable samples, do not hesitate to contact tebu-bio’s laboratory, a certified service provider, for performing your array experiments for Biomarker discovery and Protein Multiplex quantification.
Below you’ll find a selection of publications published in 2015 based on various types of Antibody Arrays:
- Human Cytokine array 6 in Blood – Balakumaran A. et al. “Bone marrow skeletal stem/progenitor cell defects in patients with dyskeratosis congenita and telomere biology disorders. Blood. 2015 Jan 29;125(5):793-802. doi: 10.1182/blood-2014-06-566810.
- Human Cytokine array 5 in Oncogene – Sharif GM. et al. “Cell growth density modulates cancer cell vascular invasion via Hippo pathway activity and CXCR2 signaling.” Oncogene. 2015 Mar 16. doi: 10.1038/onc.2015.44.
- Mouse Cytokine array 1000 in PLoS One – Arshad A et al. (2015) “Simultaneous Irradiation of Fibroblasts and Carcinoma Cells Repress the Secretion of Soluble Factors Able to Stimulate Carcinoma Cell Migration.” PLoS ONE 10(1): e0115447. doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0115447.
- Mouse Inflammation 1 in Laboratory Investigations – Wen J. et al. “Low doses of CMV induce autoimmune-mediated and inflammatory responses in bile duct epithelia of regulatory T cell-depleted neonatal mice. Lab Invest. 2015 Feb;95(2):180-92. doi: 10.1038/labinvest.2014.148.
- Mouse Q4000 in Clinical and Vaccine Immunology – Kurtz S., Elkins K. “Correlates of vaccine-induced protection against TB immune revealed in comparative analyses of lymphocyte populations.” Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, Accepted manuscript posted online 12 August 2015, doi: 10.1128/CVI.00301-15.
- Human G1000 in PLoS One – Gomez DL et al. (2015) “Neurogenin 3 Expressing Cells in the Human Exocrine Pancreas Have the Capacity for Endocrine Cell Fate. PLoS ONE 10(8): e0133862. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0133862.
- Human Apoptosis Array in Drug Design and Development – Ahmadipour F. et al. “Koenimbin, a natural dietary compound of Murraya koenigii (L) Spreng: inhibition of MCF7 breast cancer cells and targeting of derived MCF7 breast cancer stem cells (CD44+/CD24-/low): an in vitro study.” Drug Des Devel Ther. 2015 Feb 24;9:1193-208. doi: 10.2147/DDDT.S72127.
Contact us to know more on how we can help you to publish in high-quality journals!
The Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) are an important family of cell-surface receptors transmitting extracellular stimuli (ex. NGF, PDGF, FGF, EGF, Insulin…) into intracellular protein-tyrosine kinase activity, which subsequently induces a signal-transduction cascade. This signal transduction pathway leads to the regulation of cellular proliferation, differentiation, and metabolism, but also to gene expression modulation and Ras activation (a GTPase switch protein).