The availability of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy individuals and from patients with various diseases allows for many studies on normal and abnormal functions of human immune cells. Because human and murine immune biology differs in many ways, it is important that various methodologies for studying human immunology are established. The two reports highlighted below demonstrate the usage of human PBMCs for mechanistic and pre-clinical human immune cell studies. [Read more…]
The Notch signaling pathway plays a vital role in the regulation of asymmetric cell division, cell fate specification and proliferation. Mammals possess 4 different Notch receptors, referred to as Notch1, 2, 3, and 4. The Notch receptor is a hetero-oligomer transmembrane protein that comprises a large extracellular domain, a single-pass transmembrane span, and a small intracellular region. [Read more…]
An interesting poster has recently been published by XenoTech: “Selection of Human Liver S9 and Cytosol Fractions for Evaluating Clearance by Aldehyde Oxidase (AO): The Impact of Low Versus High AO Activity Lots” by Phyllis Yerino, Clayton Otwell, Zell Woodworth and David B Buckley (XenoTech, LLC, Lenexa, KS, USA). [Read more…]
Pr. Ruo-Pan Huang’s team has just published a review detailing the interactions between cancer and immune cells.
This overview describes the key cytokine signals, cell–cell signal networks in the tumor microenvironment during cancer diseases. It also demonstrates the power of antibody arrays and multiplex immunoassays as unique research tools to decipher cytokine networks during cancer and inflammation processes.
Brett Burkholder et al. “Tumor-induced perturbations of cytokines and immune cell networks” (2014) BBA – Reviews on Cancer, Vol. 1845 no. 2, 182–201. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbcan.2014.01.004
What is an integrated hepatic model and why is it important?
An integrated in vitro model maintains physiologic cellular components and processes at in vivo-relevant amounts. In the sandwich-cultured hepatocyte model, relevant drug transporter proteins (uptake and efflux), as well as drug metabolizing enzymes (Phase I and II), are expressed, maintained, and functioning together in the same system. The figure below graphically represents this concept (picture from Qualyst Transporter Solutions). [Read more…]
Study of living tissues has gained wide spread application in microscopy with the advent of fluorescent dyes and inverted microscopes dedicated to their viewing. A critical component is maintaining physiological conditions in media formulations, including pH and osmolarity, without contributing to background fluorescence. Most cells are grown in media formulations that use bicarbonate buffers, requiring the continuous presence of CO2 to maintain physiological pH. Just 15 minutes outside a CO2 incubator can change the pH from 7.4 to 8.1, and to 8.7 after an hour. [Read more…]
Cell reprogramming of Mouse and Human somatic cells to induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSC) have opened outstanding new opportunities for biomedical research. iPSC are now becoming unique cellular models for personalized therapies and regenerative medicine.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and influence numerous cellular functions. Together with mature RNAs and small molecules, mature miRNAs can induce forced reprogramming of somatic cells. They are considered as key regulators in stem cell development. (1, 2)
But what if you want to profile the expression of human IPS (stem cell) related miRNAs?
Angiogenesis refers to new vessel formation from the pre-existing ones. This process is essential during development, wound healing, as well as the transition of malignant tumors. VEGF family has been identified as a major contributor to angiogenesis, while families of Angiopoietin, PDGF, and FGF govern the process as well.
The most important member of VEGF family is VEGF-A, which couples with its receptor VEGFR2 to stimulate signals in endothelial cells for survival, proliferation, adhesion, migration, and tubular formation. This signaling also mediates vessel permeability and stimulates inflammatory response.
Our selection of 100% guaranteed research antibodies related to the VEGF-ANG pathway!
- ERK1 antibody: a rabbit polyclonal antibody to ERK1
- VEGFA antibody: a rabbit polyclonal antibody to VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor A)
- CDC42 antibody: a chicken polyclonal antibody to CDC42
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mRNAs are expression factors that mimic fully processed mRNA. Being the substrate for translation by ribosomes, mRNA expression factors are often preferred over viral vectors for cell reprogramming and iPS cell generation because of the absent risk of integration into the genome. Such RNA-induced pluripotent stem cells (RiPSCs described in 2010 by Warren et al.) are becoming more and more popular. 3 reasons might illustrate RiPSCs’ attractivty.