I have to admit that I never received the Fields Medal in Mathematics. Therefore, I won’t be able to develop this equation and prove that I’m right. However, what I can prove, is that in cell culture, 2 = 5. How is this possible?
New research suggests that dendritic cells produce and release CTLA-4, which typically inhibits anticancer responses.
Cancer immunotherapy strategies have made it increasingly evident that the immune system plays an integral role in managing and destroying cancer. Nevertheless, many mechanisms of immune suppression exist that may inhibit antitumour immunity. Recently, strategies that implement antibodies directed against negative immunologic regulators have demonstrated significant success. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associate protein-4 (CTLA-4) was the first immunologic checkpoint to be clinically targeted, by the cancer immunotherapeutic ipilimumab, an FDA-approved drug to treat melanoma. After T-cell activation, CTLA-4 is upregulated on the cell surface where it functions to downregulate T cell function. Ipilimumab binds to CTLA-4 on T cells, which blocks the inhibitory signals and enhances anti-cancer immune responses.
Featuring topographical resemblance to the extracellular matrix, these nanopatterned substrates provide a topographical and mechanical niche for cells to grow as if they are in vivo.
The nanopatterned surfaces influence both cellular morphology and phenotype.
For example, when used with cardiomyocytes, one can observe formation of striated sarcomeres, intercalated discs, and polarized expression of gap junction proteins such as Connexin 43 (Cx43).
Phenotypically, cells cultured on ANFS are more mature, and more physiological, so that your studies are more predictive.
If the answer is yes, I am sure you’ll be interested to learn more about WST-8 and our Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). If the answer is no, and you’ve already switched to WST-8, just have a look at our price list… you might be surprised!
Cell culture models using 2D substrates have provided important conceptual advances in understanding the biology of cells. However, cells grown on flat 2D surfaces can differ substantially from physiological environments. Animal models provide a useful tool to study biology in a physiologically relevant environment. However, animals models are expensive, time-consuming, use a significant amount of test material, and do not always provide a useful extrapolation to humans. In vitro 3D cell culture models bridge the gap between the two, allowing the study of human cells in a physiologically-relevant environment with the convenience and speed of an in vitro model. [Read more…]
Donor-derived lymphocytes attack a patient’s cancer — but may attack the patient as well. Donor chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, on the other hand, brought remissions without this troubling complication.
CAR T cells continue to make waves: At the latest annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, it was announced that CAR T cells, in which T cells from a patient are genetically reprogrammed to target cancer cells, removed all traces of cancer in the bone marrow of 27 out of 29 acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Nineteen of 30 individuals with non-Hodgkin lymphoma also responded in the form of partial or complete responses. The cumulative successes found in CAR T cell studies have labeled them “extraordinary.” [Read more…]
The inadequacy of animal models to predict human biology in the drug development process is becoming increasingly clear, due to species differences in uptake and metabolism at both cellular and organ levels.
As a result, there is a need for more human model systems to be incorporated earlier in research and development.
Innovative concepts such as “body on a chip” have been introduced, but the complexity and miniaturization of many of the formats has limited applicability on a commercial scale.
SciKon is developing tools that better recapitulate biological systems in bench-top cell culture formats, which are amenable to mass manufacturing (introduced recently in the post Cell Signaling isn’t static…your cell culture shouldn’t be either!). [Read more…]
Complex cell culture systems are emerging as key tools to improve physiological relevance of in vitro assay systems. There have been two main ways by which investigators attempt to improve mimicking of physiological conditions in cell and tissue culture. The first is to develop more complex model systems where two or more cell types are co-cultured in a 3D structure either separated by membranes or in spheroids . The second is to incorporate fluidic-flow where the motion of the media itself has been shown to improve metabolic function and lifespan [2,3].
Despite the success of better recapitulating function at the cellular level using these two methods, neither of these approaches addresses the issue of the non-linear nature of the drug or toxicant exposure as is observed in an in vivo system . As a result, the capacity to accurately predict in vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics still falls short reaching at best 60-70% accuracy [5,6].
So what’s new in this area? We were interested to discover the following system, which we think will be of interest to many researchers. Let’s take a closer look at the characteristics and how it can be used. [Read more…]
Tumour modelling facilitates the study of tumour growth in the tumour microenvironment (TME). Therapies that affect the tumour microenvironment are critical for advancing the fight against cancer as emerging therapies target the network of signaling pathways essential for tumour growth, Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition and metastasis (ex. Wnt/ß-Catenin pathway). Patient derived tumour models, including melanoma cell lines, are invaluable tools to study normal and malignant cells, tumour formation and drug resistance.
Rockland Immunochemicals Inc. has partnered with the Wistar Research Institute, to produce, validate and distribute a diverse panel of low passage melanoma cell lines from freshly excised metastases. More than 100 melanoma cell lines are grouped for BRAF, N-RAS, KIT, PTEN and CDK4 mutations. These pre-clinical tumour cell lines models can be used to identify the critical target genes and pathways enacted by genomic alterations and lead to more accurately prediction of the effectiveness of novel cancer therapeutics and facilitate cancer research. [Read more…]