Collagen is a structural protein expressed in mammalian tissues (ex. skin, muscles, tendons, ligaments, cartilages, blood vessels…). Together with Elastin and Keratin, Collagen fibres give connective properties to mammalial tissues ensuring their physiological form but also firmness, strength and flexibility. Needless to say, Collagen is trendy… a simple search in Google using the term “Collagen” clearly shows the economical dimension of this protein in well-being.
The availability of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy individuals and from patients with various diseases allows for many studies on normal and abnormal functions of human immune cells. Because human and murine immune biology differs in many ways, it is important that various methodologies for studying human immunology are established. The two reports highlighted below demonstrate the usage of human PBMCs for mechanistic and pre-clinical human immune cell studies. [Read more…]
Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) is a cardiac hypertrophic factor with cardiac myocyte protective properties. CT-1 belongs to the interleukin-6 cytokine family and acts through LIF receptor ß/glycoprotein 130 (gp130)-coupled signaling pathways.
CT-1 intracellular signaling pathways enlist kinases (ERK, MAP, JAK) but also STAT and PI3-kinase/Akt systems.
Cardiac CT-1 expression is increased by hypoxia, where it protects cardiac myocytes from ischemic injury and apoptosis.
Low oxygen tension, or Hypoxia, regulates numerous cellular and tissular functions. In cancer research, hypoxia is a key regulator of tumor development, aggressiveness and therapy resistance by acting on malignant cells and their microenvironment. Hypoxia is also involved in age-related diseases and acts through intracellular and intercellular cascade of events (exosomes, paracrine loops, angiogenesis…) (1-2). [Read more…]